Heavy Metal Contamination Assessment of Selected Water Sources in Ibadan Metropolis



It has been established by previous researchers that there is significant heavy metal contamination of soil and water sources in Ibadan metropolis. The heavy metal concentration of selected water sources in Ibadan, Nigeria was examined in this study. Water samples were collected and their locations taken with the aid of a GPS. The concentration of heavy metals (Lead, Zinc, Iron and Manganese) in the water samples was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The results obtained was compared with   the  WHO and SON specified limit for drinking water. The results showed that rain is free from heavy metal contamination and most of the surface   and groundwater samples exceeded the WHO (2006) and SON (2007) recommended concentration for drinking water and more pronounced in urban areas than rural areas. The study recommends enlightenment on heavy metal contamination, improved land use planning and adequate protection of water sources.

Full Text:



Adebisi, S.A. and Fayemiwo, K.A. (2010) Pollution of Ibadan soil by industrial effluents. New York Science Journal

;3(10):37-41]. (ISSN: 1554-0200).

Adebisi. S.A, Ipinmoroti, K.O and Amoo, I.A (2007). Heavy Metal Contents of Effluents and Receiving waters from various Industrial

Groups and their Environs in Ibadan,Nigeria. Research Journal of Applied Sciences, 2:345-348 URL:http://medwell


Adelekan B.A and Alawode, A.O Contributions of municipal refuse dumps to heavy metals concentrations in soil profile and

groundwater in Ibadan Nigeria Journal of Applied Biosciences 40: 2727 – 2737 ISSN 1997–5902


Adewara A.O, Akinlolu F.A (2008) Contamination indices and heavy metal concentrations in urban soil of Ibadan metropolis,

Southwestern Nigeria. Environ. Geochem. Health., 30(3): 243-254. Published by SpringerLink Journal (accessed on line from

http://www.springeronline.com on 30th October 2016).

Adeyemi, G.O and Temowo,O.O.(2010). Hydrogeological investigation of waste dump environment near Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria.

Proceedings, Annual conference of Nigerian Association of Hydrogeologists on Water Resources Development and Climate Change.12.

Agbede, O.A (1991). “Water pollution in Ibadan”. Proc. 17th WEDC conference on infrastructure, Environment, water and people. Nairobi,


Agbede, O.A and Oladejo, O.S (2003). Study of water quality at oil depots in South Western Nigeria. International Journal of

Environmental issues. 1(1), 160-165.

Amisah, S., Adjei-Boateng, D., Obirikorang, KA. And Quagrainie. 2009. Effects of clam size on heavy metal accumulation in whole soft

tissues of Galatea paradoxa (Born, 1778) from the Volta estuary. Ghana. Inter. J.Fisher. Aquacul. 1(2):14-21.

APHA (1998). Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater. (16th edition). American Waterworks Association. And

Water Pollution Control Federation. American Public Health Association. pp. 80-115

Asogwa .S.E (1979). The Risk of Lead Poisoning in Battery Chargers and possible hazard of their Occupation on the Environment. Nig.

Med. J., 9(2): 189-193.

Benzer, S., Arslan, H., Uzel, N., Gül, A. and Yılmaz, M. (2013). Concentrations of metals in water, sediment and tissues of Cyprinus

carpio L., from Mogan Lake (Turkey). Iranian Journal of Fisheries Sciences. 12(1):45-55.

Canli, M. and Kalay, M. (1998). Levels of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni) in tissue of Cyprinus carpio, Barbus capito and

Chondrostoma regium from the Seyhan River, Turkey. Turkish Journal Zoology. 22:149-157.

Dirilgen, N. (2001). Accumulation of heavy metals in fresh water organisms: Assessment of toxic interactions. FAO. Fischer. Technology.


Edem, C.A., Akpan, B. and Dosunmu, M.I. (2008). A comparative assessment of heavy metals and hydrocarbon accumulation in Sphyrena

afra, Orechromis niloticus and Lops lacerta from Anantigha Beach market in Calabar- Nigeria. Afr. J. Environ. Pollut. and Health. 6:61-

Gbadebo, A.M., Taiwo, A.M. and Eghele, U. (2010). Environmental impacts of drilling mud and cutting wastes from the Igbokoda

onshore oil wells, Southwestern Nigeria. Indian J. of Sci. and Tech. 2010; 3(5): 504-510.

Kazi Sabrina Haq, (2014). Water Crisis and Urban Poor: The Case of Poor Communities in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Developing

Country Studies ISSN 2224-607X (Paper) ISSN 2225-0565 (Online) Vol.4, No.16, 2014 www.iiste.org

Moyosore, J.O, Coker A.O, Sridhar M.K.C and Adejumo, M (2014) Iron and manganese levels of Groundwater in selected areas in

Ibadan and feasible engineering Solutions European Scientific Journal April 2014 edition vol.10, No.11 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e –

ISSN 1857- 7431

Njoku, K.L., Akinola, M.O. and Oboh, B.O. (2009) Phytoremediation of crude oil contaminated

soil:the effect of growth of Glycine max on the physico-chemistry and crude oil contents of soil Nature and Science 2009; 7(10): 79-87.

Odewande ,A.A and ,Abimbola A.F ,(2008). Contamination indices and heavy metal concentrations in urban soil of Ibadan metropolis,

southwestern Nigeria. Environ Geochem Health. 2008 Jun;30(3):243-54

Olusegun, P.A (2010). Lead and coliform contaminants in potable groundwater sources in Ibadan, South-West Nigeria. Journal of

Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Vol. 2(5), pp. 79-83, June 2010 Available online http://www.academicjournals.org/jece


Oyeleke, P.O. ,Abiodun,O.A., Salako R.A., Odeyemi,O.E., and Abejide, T.B (2016). Assessment of some heavy metals in the surrounding

soils of an automobile battery factory in Ibadan, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Vol.10(1), pp.1-8,

Rao, N.S., Rao, V.G., and Gupta, C.P.(1998), Groundwater pollution due to discharge of industrial effluents in Venkatapuram Area,

Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental Geology 1998: 33(4): 289-294.

Schüürmann, G. and Markert, B. (1998). Ecotoxicology: Ecological Fundamentals, Chemical Exposure, and Biological Effects. John

Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, and Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg. pp936.

SON, Standards Organization of Nigeria. (2007). Nigerian Standard for drinking water quality. Nigeria Industrial standard NIS 554:2007

Tomori M. A. (2006) Ibadan Metropolitan area and the challenges to sustainable development.

Trivedy P.K. and Goel P.K. (1986). Chemical and biological methods for water pollution studies, Series in Methodology, Environmental

Publications, Karad, 220pp.

UNICEF. (2010) Water Quality Assesment and Monitoring,Technical Bulletin No.6

http://www.who.int/water_sanitationhealth/dwq/guidelines/en/. [Assessed 30th july, 2016]

UNICEF (2007) The New Certified Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality http://www.unicef.org/nigeria/media_2226.html

The United Nations World Water Development Report 2, 2006 “ Water, a shared responsibility”.

Ujile, A.A , Omo-Irabor, O.O. Ogbonna, J (2012). Groundwater Contamination at Waste disposal sites at Ibadan, Nigeria Article in

Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management · August 2012 DOI: 10.5276/JSWTM.2012.149


Vinodhini, R. and Narayanan, M. (2008). Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in organs of fresh water fish Cyprinus carpio (common carp).

International Journal of Environment Science and Technology. 2(5):179-182.

Vutukuru, SS. (2005). Acute effects of Hexavalent chromium on survival, oxygen consumption hematological parameters and some

biochemical profiles of the India major carp, Labeo rohita. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2(3):456-

World Health Organization, (1997). Guidelines for drinking water quality, 2nd Edition,Volume3 Surveilance and control of community


World Health Organization, (2006). Guidelines for drinking water quality [electronic resource] : incorporating first addendum. Vol. 1,

Recommendations. – 3rd ed.

WHO (1996) Zinc in Drinking-water Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality

WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/17 http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/chemicals/zinc.pdf


  • There are currently no refbacks.

MAYFEB Journal of Materials Science
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
ISSN 2371-8722