Design and Implementation of Ball and Beam System using PID Controller

Awadalla Taifour Ali, Ahmed A. M., Almahdi H. A., Osama A. Taha, Naseraldeen A.


The ball and beam system is laboratory equipment with high nonlinearity in its dynamics. The main ideas of the paper are to model the ball and beam system considering nonlinear factors and coupling effect and to design Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller to control the ball position. The system consists of an Arduino microcontroller. It receives the ball position from ultrasonic distance sensor and compares it with the desired distance which can be set by the user. PID algorithm has built in Arduino to process the difference in signal between desired and real position into control signal.  Arduino sends control signal to the DC servomotor which rotates to change the ball position and meet the desired distance. MATLAB software program has been used to plot instant system response. Arduino is interfaced with computer to determine the system characteristics with different values of controller parameters in order to choose parameters values which obtained best performance for the system.

Full Text:



E. P. Dadios, R. Baylon, R. D. Guzman, A. Florentino, R. M. Lee ve Z. Zulueta, Vision Guided Ball-Beam Balancing System Using Fuzzy Logic, 26th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Cilt 3, pp. 1973-1978, 2000.

J. Whelan ve J. W. Ringwood, A Demonstration Rig for Control Systems Based on the Ball and Beam with Vision Feedback, Proc.3rd IFAC Symposium on Control Education, Tokyo, 1994.

S. Sridharan ve G. Sridharan, Ball and Beam on Roller: A New Control Laboratory Device, Proceedings of the 2002 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, Cilt 4, 2002, pp. 1318-1321.

Sıtkı KOCAOĞLU, Hilmi KUŞÇU: “Design and Control of PID-Controlled Ball and Beam System” Unitech. Int. Science Conference, Gabrovo, 2013, PP: 41-46.

Basil Hamed “Application of a LabVIEW for Real-Time Control of Ball and Beam System” IACSIT International Journal of Engineering and Technology, Vol.2, No.4, August 2010. PP: 401-407.

S Sathiyavathi and K Krishnamurthy “PID Control of Ball and Beam System – A Real Time Experimentation” Journal of Scientific & Industrial Research; Vol. 72, August 2013, PP: 481-484.

Chinju Joseph, Nitha Thomas,Jefin Thomas, Elizabath Rajan, Reema Mathew. A “Mathematical Modelling of on a middle Supported Beam” International Journal of Emerging Technology in Computer Science & Electronics (IJETCSE) ISSN: 0976-1353 Volume 8 Issue 1 –APRIL 2014. PP: 286-289.

Krzysztof Nowopolski “Implementation of Ball-and-beam Control System as an Instance of SIMULINK to 32-Bit Microcontroller Interface” Poznan University of Technology Academic Journal; Electrical Engineering; No 7 – 2013. PP: 31-38.

Oskar Lundberg, Svante Finnveden, Ines Lopez and Stefan Björklund; “Non-linear contact forces for beam/ball-interaction and its influence on the dynamic response of the beam” inter noise: Noise control for quality of life; Australia 15-18 September 2013.

Carlos G. Bolívar-Vincenty, Gerson Beauchamp-Báez; “Modelling the Ball-and-Beam SystemFrom Newtonian Mechanics and from Lagrange Methods” Twelfth LACCEI Latin American and Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology; July 22 - 24, 2014 Guayaquil, Ecuador.

Santosh Kr. Choudhary; “Fractional Order Feedback Control of a Ball and Beam System” International Journal of Computer, Information, Systems and Control Engineering Vol:8 No:7, 2014; PP: 1120-1126.

Mohammad Keshmiri, Ali Fellah Jahromi, Abolfazl Mohebbi, Mohammad Hadi Amoozgar and Wen-Fang Xie; “ Modelling and Control of Ball and Beam System Using Model Based and Non-model Based Control Approaches” International Journal on Smart Sensing and Intelligent Systems, Vol. 5, NO. 1, March 2012, PP: 14-35.

N. N. Aziz, M. I. Yusoff, and R Akmeliawati; “Two Degree of freedom Control of Ball and Beam System” IOP Conference series: 5th international conference on mechatronics, 2013, PP: 1-12.

Robert C. Rice, “PID Tuning Guide A Best-Practices Approach” NovaTech. PP: 20-26.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

MAYFEB Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Toronto, Ontario, Canada