Sub-chronic Exposure to Mosquito coil Smoke in Mice: Effect on Motor Coordination

Philemon Paul Mshelia, Rabiu AbduSSALAM Magaji, Abdulazeez Umar Dikko

Abstract


Mosquito coil is a common insect repellent used in many homes. It burns and emits smoke that repels and immobilizes mosquito. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sub-chronic exposure to mosquito coil smoke on motor coordination in mice. Twenty eight adult mice weighing 20 – 38g were used for the study and divided into four groups of seven mice each. Group one was exposed to environmental air; group two, three and four exposed to Goldeer mosquito coil smoke (containing 0.03% transfluthrin) for one, two and three hours respectively for six weeks. Mice were passed through the Beam walking assay after one, three and six weeks of exposure. The mice were anaesthesized, sacrificed and brain sample harvested and homogenized. The homogenate was centrifuged and the supernatant used for biochemical assays of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and catalase activity (CAT). Data were analysed using One Way Anova with Tukey post hoc tests. Results were expressed as Mean ± SEM and P values of (P < 0.05) regarded as statistically significant. The result showed that prolong mosquito coil smoke inhalation could impair motor function especially motor coordination (P < 0.05).

 

Key words: Mice, mosquito coil smoke, motor coordination, beam walk.

 


Full Text:

PDF

References


WHO (2017). Malaria Fact sheet.Retrieved on 06/11/17.www.who.int.

Ibiam, U.A., Ugwu, O. O. Edwin, N., Ugwu O.P.C. (2015). Hepatotoxicity of Rambo and Cork Mosquito-Coil Smoke and the Protective Effects of G. Latifolium Leaf Extract. Journal of Natural Sciences Research, Vol.5, No.1, 2224-3186.

Garba, S.H., Adelaiye, A.B. and Mshelia, L.Y.(2007). Histopathological and Biochemical Changes in the Rats Kidney Following Exposure to a Pyrcthroid Based Mosquito Coil. Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 3(12): 1788-1793.

Shruthi, B., Ashwin, K., Yaram, G., Erukulla, V. (2015). Attempted Suicide with Mosquito Coil Consumption: A Rare Case of Poisoning in Adults. Scholars Journal of Applied Medical Sciences (SJAMS), 3(3F):1457-1458.

Krieger, R.L., Dinoff, T.M., and Zhang, X. (2003). Octachlorodipropyl Ether (S – 2). Mosquito Coils are adequately Studied for Residential use in Asia and Illegal in the United States. Environ Health Perspect. 111 : 1439 – 42.

Mshelia, P.P., Magaji, R.A. and Dikko, A.U.A. (2013). Cognitive Effect of the Sub-Chronic Exposure to Mosquito Coil Smoke in Mice. IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 8(2):26-30.

Liu, W, Zhang, J.,Hashim, J. H., Jalaludin, J., Hashim, Z and Goldstein, B. D. (2003)."Mosquito Coil Emissions and Health Implications" Environmental Health Perspectives 111 (12): 1454–1460.

Anvita, S., Mithilesh-Kumar, S. and Rayendra, B. R. (2006). Ninety-day toxicity and one generation reproduction study in rats exposed to allethrin-based mosquito coil. Journal of Environmental Toxicology, 65:45-48.

Taiwo, V.O., Nwagbara, N.P., Suleiman, R., Angbashim, J.E., Zarma, M.J. (2008). Clinical signs and organ pathology in rats exposed to graded doses of pyrethroids-containing mosquito coil smoke and aerosolized insecticidal sprays. Afr. J. Biomed. Res., 11: 97 104.

Charreton, M., Decourtye, A., Henry, M., Rodet, G., Sandoz, J. C., Charnet, P., and Collet, C. (2015). A locomotor deficit induced by sublethal doses of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides in the honeybee Apis mellifera. PloS one, 10 (12).

John, N. A., and John, J. (2015). Prolonged use of mosquito coil, mats, and liquidators: A review of its health implications. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Physiology, 2(4), 209.

Wolansky, M.J.,and Harrill,J.A.,(2007). Neurobehavioral toxicology of pyrethroid insecticides in adult animals: A critical review, Neurotoxicol.Teratol. doi:10.1016/j.ntt.2007.10.005.

Alzogaray, R.A., Fontan, A.and Zerba, E.N (1993). Evaluation of hyperactivity produced by pyrethroid treatment on third instar nymphs of Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 35 (3) 323–333.

Stanley, J.L., Lincoln, R.J., Brown, T.A., McDonald, L.M., Dawson, G.R. and Reynolds, D.S. (2005). The mouse beam walking assay offers improved sensitivity over the mouse rotarod in determining motor coordinationdeficits induced by benzodiazepines. J. Psychopharmacol. 19(3):221-227.

Draper, H and Hadley, M. (1990) Malondialdehyde determination as index of lipid peroxidation. Methods in Enzymology.186: 421–431.

DeFreitas, R.M., Vasconcelos, S.M.M., Sousa, F.C.F., Viana, G.S.B. and Fonteles, M.M.M (2005). Oxidative stress in the hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in Wistar rats. FEBS Journal, 272: 1307-1312.

Martin Jr, J.P, Dailey, M and Sugarman, E. (1987). Negative and Positive Assays of Superoxide Dismutase Based on Hematoxylin Autoxidation, Archives of Biochemistry and Physics, 255: 329-336.

Middleton, F.A. and Strick, P.L. (2000). Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops: motor and cognitive circuits. Brain Research Reviews; 31(2): 236 – 250.

McDaniel, K.L. and Moser,V.C.(1993). Utility of a neurobehavioral screening. Medicine, 268:1025–1026.

Saunders,C.R.,Shockley,D.C., Knuckles, M.E. (2003). Fluoranthene-induced neurobehavioral toxicity in F-344 rats. Int. J. Toxicol. 22, 263–276.

Saunders, C.R., Ramesh, A., Shockley, D.C. (2002). Modulation of neurotoxic behavior in F-344 rats by temporal disposition of benzo(a)pyrene. Toxicol. Lett. 129, 33–45.

Offor, C.E. (2014). Effect of smoke from mosquito coil on serum aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase activities in male albino rats. Int.J.Curr.Res.Aca.Rev.; 2(12):97-100.

Naffah-Mazzacoratti, M.G, Cavalheiro E.A, Ferreira,E.C, Abdalla, D.S.P, Amado, D and Bellissimo, M.I (2001).Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidise activities and the hydroperoxide concentration are modified in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. Epilepsy Research. 46:121-128.

Drewa,G.,Jakbczyk,M.andAraszkiewicz,A.(1998). Role of free radicals in schizophrenia. Medical Science Monitor. 4:1111-1115.

Oboh, G., Ayodele, J.A., and Adebayo, O.A. (2012). Antioxidant and Inhibitory Effects of Red Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Val Rubra) and White Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) on Fe+ induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain in Vitro. Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology. 64: 31 – 36.

El-Demerdash, F.M. (2001). Lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and acetylcholinesterase in rat brain exposed to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides. Food and Chemical Toxicology; 49(6):1346 – 1352.

Al-Mamun, M. A., Rahman, M. A., Rahman, M. H., Hoque, K. M. F., Ferdousi, Z., Matin, M. N., & Reza, M. A. (2017). Biochemical and histological alterations induced by the smoke of allethrin based mosquito coil on mice model. BMC Clinical Pathology, 17(1), 19.

Madhubabu, G. and Yenugu, S. (2012). Effect of continuous inhalation of allethrin-based mosquito coil smoke in the male reproductive tract of rats. Inhal Toxicol. 24:143–152.

Kale, M., Rathore, N., John, S and Bhatnager, D. (1999). Lipid Peroxidative damage on Pyrethoid Exposure and Alterations in Antioxidants Status in Rats Erythrocytes: A Possible Involvement of Reactive Oxygen Species. Toxicol let. 105(3): 197 – 205.

Syrovatskaia, L.P,. Sereda,P.I., Gromov, L.A., Filonenko, M.A.O. (1993). Activity of antioxidant defense enzymes and the state of lipid peroxidation in the rat brain in decis and dichlofos poisoning, Ukr. Biohim. Z. 65 : 113–117.

Scalios, J.G (2002). The rise of ROS, Trends Biochem. Sci. 22 (2002) 483–486.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


MAYFEB Journal of Biology and Medicine
MAYFEB TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
ISSN 2560-6948