Effect of Crude Extracts of Ocimum Gratissimum and Vernonia Amygdalina on Urea and Creatinine in Non Diabetic and Diabetic Rats

Izunwanne D. I., Aduema Nil Wadioni, Okonkwo O.C


Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease. Most investigators have focused on electrolytes derangement while the effect of OG and VA on Urea and Creatinine in diabetic state has been less attended. The present study has been conducted to find out urea and creatine changes in diabetic renal tissue and the ameliorative effects of herb extracts. Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin 65mg/kg. The diabetic control group and normal control received only distilled water 10mg/kg. Both non diabetic groups and diabetic treated groups received 208mg/kg of Ocimum gratissimum and 52mg/kg of Vernonia amygdalina. The treatment lasted for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, result analysis for diabetes showed that serum creatinine levels were significantly reduced at (p < 0.05) in the diabetic control group while the non diabetic group treated with OG AND OG+VA was decreased at (p < 0.05) compared to normal control. Urea results showed a statistical increase at (p < 0.05) in diabetic control group compared to the non diabetic control while treatment with VA decreased at (p < 0.05) the creatinine level compared to diabetic control and non diabetic control group. Post treatment with OG, VA, OG+VA and Insulin was able to restore the Urea and Creatinine level. Daily administration of OG and VA to the different groups shows that leaf extracts of OG and VA can positively restore kidney functions in a diabetic state. 

Full Text:



E. O. Agbai., U. C. Ofoego, F. N. Nwodo., and C. O. Nwanegwo: Synergistic Effect of Methanolic Extract of Vernonia amygdalina del and Ocimum gratissimum on Kidney Functions in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats in Comparison with Insulin. Journal of Medical and Applied Biosciences 5(1):116 – 131. (2013)

E. K. Jang, J. H. Seo, S. P. Lee; Physiological activity and antioxidative effects of aged lack garlic extract. Korean Society of Food Science and Technology. 40:443-448 (2007).

J. V. Hunt, R. T. Dean, and S. P. Wolff; Hydroxyl radical production and autoxidative glycosylation.Glucose autoxidation as the cause of protein damage in the experimental glycation model of diabetes mellitus and ageing.Biochemistry Journal. 256:205-209. (1988).

L. Hounsom, R. Corder, J. Patel, and D. R. Tomlinson; Oxidative stress participate in the breakdown of neuronal phenotype in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Diabetologia. 44: 424-428 (2001).

M. Nattrass; In “Recent advances in diabetes”. 2nd edition, Nattrass, M. (ed), Edinburgh, London, Melbourne New York. P.1. (1986).

A. Y. Onaolapo, O. J. Onaolapo, and O. S; Adewole, Ethanolic extract of ocimum gratissimum leaves rapidly lowers blood glucose levels in diabetic wistar rats. Macedonian Journal of Medical Science 4(4):351-357. (2011).

S. E. Nielsen, S. Takeshi, L. Tarnow, M. Lajer, K. J. Schljoedt, A. S. Strup, T. Baba, P. Hans-Henrik and P. Rossing; Tubular and glomerular injury in diabetes and the impact of ACE inhibition.Diabetes care. 32(9):1684-1688. (2009).

O. Fuentes., A. Arancibis., and H. Alarcon, Hypoglycemic activities of Bauhinia Candican in diabetic induced rabbits: Fitoterapis 6:527-532 (2004).

Sepici, I. Gurbuz, C. Cevik, and E. Yesilade, Hypoglycemic effects of myrtle oil in normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits.Journal of Ethnopharmacology 93:311-318. (2004).

K. Yionen, C. Saloranta, C. kronberg, C. Leif, A. Antti, M. Suvi and M. Virtanean, Association of dietary fiber with glucose metabolism in non-diabetic relatives of subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 26:1979-1985. (2003).

V. F. Socorro, Madeira, J. A. Francisco, Matos, Joseph, Leal-Cardoso, and N. David, Relaxant effects of essential oil of O.G on isolated ileum of the guinea pig. Journal of Ethnopharmacology.81:(1)1-4(2002).

A. Lemhadri, M. Eddouks; T. Sulpice, and R. Burcelin; Anti glycemic and anti –obesity effects of Capparisspinosa and Chamaemelumnobile aqueous extracts in HFD mice. Americn Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 2(3):106-110. (2007).

Anupriya, Sharma, N. Hirulkar and Payal, Ranka Effectrs of hyperglycemia on electrolytes imbalances. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and biological Archives. 2(1):526-533. (2011).

K. A. Griffin, H. Kramer, A. K. Bidani; Adverse renal consequence of obesity. American Journal of Physiology-Renal Physiology, 294:685-696 (2008):

D. Lorke;. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing.Archives of Toxicology 54:275-287. (1983)


  • There are currently no refbacks.

MAYFEB Journal of Biology and Medicine
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
ISSN 2560-6948