Aduema Nil Wadioni, Vidona W.B., Amah A.K.


It was therefore the aim of this study to find out whether long term consumption of cooked and uncooked beans (cowpea) diet has effects on some neurobehavioral parameters such as anxiety and fear using Swiss white mice as experimental animals, since cowpea contain serotonin and its precursor 5-Hydroxytryptophan which have neurobehavioral effects. Forty (40) Swiss mice were randomly assigned into four groups. Control (group A)  were fed normal rodent chow, cooked beans (group B) received cooked beans diet (50% w/w), uncooked beans (group C) also received uncooked beans diet (50% w/w), while another set of mice was placed on serotonin precursor (5-HTP)(group D) diet (0.2mg/50g w/w) for thirty days. All the mice had access to clean drinking water. Anxiety and fear were investigated alongside food and water intake and body weight change. Involvement of serotonin pathway was also investigated using the set of mice administered serotonin precursor for comparison with the beans diet fed mice. The open field test was used to assess anxiety &fear related behaviors. The results showed that the Centre square entry and Centre square duration for the cooked and uncooked cowpea diet was statistically higher (P<0.05 and P<0.01respectively) compared to control while the grooming frequency for the cooked, uncooked and 5-HTP was significantly higher (P<0.05., P<0.001) compared to control. Duration of grooming was also significantly higher (P<0.01) compare to control. The frequency of stretch attend posture and defecation was lower in the test group (p<0.05 respectively). Signifying a decrease in the level of anxiety & fear. The administration of serotonin precursor diet (5-HTP) produced similar results as cooked or uncooked beans, thus suggesting that serotonin may be involved in the action of beans on neurobehavioral parameters. In conclusion, long term consumption of cowpea diet causes calmness and sedation. It is therefore likely that it causes sleep, reduction of aggression and muscle tone. If the result of this finding is extrapolated to man, then, cowpea diet can be used to ameliorate post-traumatic stress disorders. 

Full Text:



.A.C. Guyton, and J.E. Hall .The nervous system. Textbook of Medical Physiology (pp.675-701).London: Saunders Company.2006.

. E.I. Adeyele. Studies of Chemical Composition and functional properties of African Yambeans(SpensotylisStenoorpa) flour.Ph,DThesis,Department of chemistry, Federal University of Technology,Akure,OndoState,Nigeria.1995.

.L.B. Brunton, J.S. Lazio, and K.L. Parker. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (607-629).New York: McGraw-Hill.2005.

.L.C. Daniel, and R.K. Michael. Biogenic amine neurotransmitters in C.elegans.Wormbook(pp.1-15).Panadesa: Worm Book.2007.

.Osim,E.E. Our consumables and our emotions. Faculty of Basic Medical Science, University of Calaber, lecture series, july11, 2012.

.Lelei,S.A., Osim, E.E., Nneli,R.O. and Bisong,S.A(2012).Chloroquine phosphate administration improves learning and memory in mice. European Journal of Scientific Reseach,93(3),372-377.

.Aduema,W.,Lelei,S.A.,Osim,E.E.,Koikoibo,W.andNneli,R.o.Effect of chronic consumption of powdered tobacco(snuff) on anxiety, fear and social behaviour. International journal of Basic, Applied and Innovative Research,1(4),161-169.2012.

.Aduema,W.,Osim,E.E.,Okorocha,A.E.,Onwe,P.E.,Ogiri,E.D.and Izunwanne,D.I. Effect of chronic consumption of powdered tobacco(snuff) on pain sensation in mice. Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences,15(7),74-79.2016.

.Davies,K.G.,Edagha,N.,Aribo,E.,Antai,A.B. and Osim,E.E. Effects of artemether and Artesunate on social behaviour and pain perception. Research in Neuroscience, 2(3), 31-38.2013.

.Walsh,R.N. and Cummins,R.A. The open field test: ,a critical review. Psychological Bulletin, 83:482-504.1995.

.B. Costal, B.J., James, M. E., Kelly, R. J., Naylor. and D.M. Tom Kins . Exploration of Mice in a black and white test box: Klidation as a model of anxiety. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 32:777 – 785.1989.

.R.C.Carvalho,C.C.Patti,A.L.TakatsuColeman,S.R.Kameda,C.F.Souza,L.Gacez-do-carmo,V.C.Abilio,R.Frussa-Filho. and R.H. Silva. Effect of reserpine on elevated plus maze discriminative avoidance task: Dissociation between memory and motor impairments, BrianResearch, 1122; 179-183, 2006.

.E.E. Osim .Neurophysiology (pp.24-27).Calabar.University of Calabar Press.2008.

.C.H. Pierce. Effect of chronic consumption of cardiac glycoside in food, water and sodium chloride, body composition and plasma hormones of spraugue-dawley rats.Behaviour,1996, 59 (1). 82 – 92, 1996.

.C.M. Portas, B. Bjorvatn, and R. Ursin. Progress in Neurobiology, 60(1), 13-35, 2000.

.R. Adolphs, F., Gasselin T.W. Buchanan, D. Tranel, P. Scgyns, and A.R.A. Damasio. Mechanism for impaired fear recognition after amygdala damage. Nature, 2005, 433, 68 – 72.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

MAYFEB Journal of Biology and Medicine
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
ISSN 2560-6948