In vitro fungicidal activity of plant oil based soaps towards apple scab (Venturia inaequalis)

Donyo Hristov Ganchev


The plant oils and soaps are known from many years as promising eco friendly  insecticides used for control of the various soft-body insects. In present study in vitro trials with three soap formulations on the base of sunflower oil were conducted in order to be evaluated their potential to be developed as naturally  friendly fungicides for controlling of apple scab. This formulations, in the future can be viable alternative of present days commercial fungicides used for the management of apple scab as cheap, low toxic and easy to be manufacture plant protection products.  All formulations were tested at  1.0 % (v/v) concentrations by the method of leaf disks and germ tube inhibition method. The results show that tested soap on the base of sunflower oil  amended with potassium chloride was able to achieve 100 % inhibition of the mycelium and germ tube germination of the apple scab pathogen (Venturia inaequalis) at 1.0 % (v/v) concentration. Other soap formulations do not show any effectiveness to the tested phytopathogen. No phytotoxic manifestations onto treated apple leaves were observed during the leaf disks test. The conducted trials reveal that although the created soap formulation are very similar (all are on the base of sunflower soap neutralized with boric acid) the addition (mixing) of different substances like potassium chloride can completely change their action and effectiveness. This make soaps promising and good alternative to the expensive fungicides especially in the area of organic agriculture. 

Full Text:



D. Tenney, The Technical Arts and Sciences of the Ancients, J. Chem. Educ., 1933, 10 (5), p 319

E. Eldem, D. Goffman, and B. Masters, The Ottoman City between East and West: Aleppo, Izmir and Istambul. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS, 1999.

D. Byrne, A. C. Bellotti and J. M. Guerrero, The Cassava mites. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PEST MANAGEMENT, 1983, No 29.4, pp : 378-394

C. Karagounis, A. K. Kourdoumbalos, T. Margaritopoulos, G. D. Nanos and J. A. Tsitsipis, Organic farming‐compatible insecticides against the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in peach orchards, Journal of Applied Entomology, 2006, Vol. 130.3, pp: 150-154

S. Goodwin, and M. Steiner, Organic Crop Protectants, Practical Hydroponics and Greenhouses, 2010, Vol. 115, pp: 37.

W. MacHardy, Apple scab: biology, epidemiology, and management. American Phytopathological Society (APS Press), 1996.

Beckerman, Janna L., George W. Sundin, and David A. Rosenberger. "Do some IPM concepts contribute to the development of fungicide resistance? Lessons learned from the apple scab pathosystem in the United States." Pest management science 71.3 (2015): 331-342.

C. Regnault-Roger, Risks of biocontrol agents containing compounds of botanical origin or semiochemicals. Regulation of Biological Control Agents. Springer Netherlands, 2011. 215-242.

K. Dileep, Pesticide Chemistry and Toxicology. Bentham Science Publishers, 2012.

H. Muntz, M. Rhonda, and D. Alston. Alternative Pest Control Methods for Homeowners. (2016).

W. Amoabeng, M. Gurr, W. Gitau, and C. Stevenson,. Cost: benefit analysis of botanical insecticide use in cabbage: Implications for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Crop Protection, 2014, 57, 71-76.

S. Dreistadt, Pests of landscape trees and shrubs: an integrated pest management guide. Ed. Mary Louise Flint. Vol. 3359. UCANR Publications, 2016.

L. Moreau, and M. Isman, Combining reduced-risk products, trap crops and yellow sticky traps for greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum) management on sweet peppers (Capsicum annum). Crop protection 34 (2012): 42-46.

L. McKenzie, V. Kumar, L. Palmer, D. Oetting, and S. Osborne,. Chemical class rotations for control of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on poinsettia and their effect on cryptic species population composition. Pest management science, 2014, 70(10), 1573-1587.

R. Arutselvi, P. Ponmurugan, T. Saravanan, and R. Suresh, Formulation of natural insecticides against Panchaetothrips indicus Bagnall in Curcuma longa L. leaves of PTS and Erode varieties. J Biopestic 5 (2012): 77-81.

M. Debboun, P. Gretchen and D. Lindsay, Use of Chemical Mixtures as Insecticides and repellents. Insect Repellents Handbook (2014): 283.

D. Noudeh, F. Sharififar, E. Behravan, F. Mohajeri, E. and V. Alinia,. Medicinal plants as surface activity modifiers. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 2011, 5(22), 5378-5383.

M. Trapman, and P. J. Jansonius, Disease management in organic apple orchards is more than applying the right product at the correct time, Ecofruit-13th International Conference on Cultivation Technique and Phytopathological Problems in Organic Fruit-Growing: Proceedings to the Conference from 18thFebruary to 20th February 2008 at Weinsberg/Germany. 2008

J. Roberts, Apple scab, 1935, No. 1478. US Dept. of Agriculture

F. Porsche, and A. Kollar, Saponins from Sapindus mukorossi: Extraction, purification and biological activity against apple scab. Berichte aus dem Julius Kühn-Institut 171 (2013): 42.

W. Gadelha, Yucca schidigera extract: a potential biofungicide against seedborne pathogens of sorghum. Plant Pathology 61.2 (2012): 331-338.

A. Warra, L. Hassan, S. Gunu and S. Jega, Cold- Process Synthesis and Properties of Soaps Prepared from Different Triacylglycerol Sources, 2010, Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science , 18 (2), pp: 315-321

P. Wong, and F. Wilcox, Distribution of baseline sensitivities to azoxystrobin among isolates of Plasmopara viticola, 2000, Plant Dis, 84, pp: 275-281

J. Janků, L. Bartovska, J. Soukup, M. Jursík, and K. Hamouzová, Density and surface tension of aqueous solutions of adjuvants used for tank-mixes with pesticides. Plant Soil Environ, , 2012, 58, 568-572.

S. Henríquez, S. Sarmiento, and P. Alarcón, Sensitivity of Venturia inaequalis Chilean isolates to difenoconazole, fenarimol, mancozeb, and pyrimethanil. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 71.1 (2011): 39.

U. Meier, Growth stages of mono-and dicotyledonous plants. BBCH Monograph 2 Edition, 2001, Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry Germany

S. Abbott, A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide, 1925, J. Econ. Enthomology, 18, pp: 267-271


  • There are currently no refbacks.

MAYFEB Journal of Agricultural Science
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
ISSN 2371-512X